To Juggle was commissioned by Clarion Synthesis, the duo of clarinetists F. Gerard Errante and D. Gause, for premiere in Las Vegas, Nevada. I wanted to create a piece suited to Las Vegas somehow, while also exploring the rich variety of colors of the clarinets and the skills of these extraordinary artists. To evoke Las Vegas I wanted music filled with energy, illusion and some entertainment value, which would also be fundamentally appropriate to a piece for two clarinets, e.g., the fact that the presentation of chords and polyphony of more than two voices needs to be achieved by a kind of illusion -- keeping some notes "in the air" while additional notes are added. A chance encounter with an essay about juggling by Penn Jillette (of Penn and Teller), in which he mentioned his childhood friend, Michael Moschen (juggler, McCarther Foundation Genius Award recipient, etc.), led me to recognize the fundamentally musical challenges of juggling (rhythmic, polyphonic, formal) and their similarity to the issues involved in composing for two like melodic instruments. I began exploring the idea of treating each clarinet as one of the two hands of a juggler, and To Juggle became a kind of inside-out experience of a virtuoso juggling performance -- a kind of developing variations -- beginning with simple exchanges, developing simple patterns into more elaborate ones, interrupted by slow lyrical exchanges and complex arrays of bounced objects (based on the work of Michael Moschen), and eventually returning to playful gestures (complete with errors) of the opening.